ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY
Iron is in the first place of all the micronutrients when it comes to body deficit.
There are several factors that cause iron deficiency:
1. insufficient food intake
2. poor absorption from the digestive system
3. increased loss of iron
4. increased needs of the organism
Women in pregnancy have an increased need for iron and also an increased risk of anemia. Pregnancy is therefore a condition with specific metabolic needs and a specific diet is necessary in order to avoid possible complications caused by a lack of nutrients. Insufficient iron intake results in iron deficiency not only for the mother but the stock of iron is too small to meet the needs of the fetus.
This increases the risk of pregnancy complications, larger amounts of blood loss during delivery, premature births and prenatal mortality.
Anemia in pregnancy is a major problem of the industrialized countries, but also the countries in development where a large percent of pregnant women suffer from anemia.
Pregnant women are especially susceptible to anemia caused by iron deficiency, due to their increased needs for iron. There are numerous negative consequences of anemia for the child as well as the mother.
The third trimester is the period where the needs for iron are the largest. Anemia in pregnancy could result in premature birth and low birth weight fetus. Thus, it is important that the mother takes supplementary iron in her nutrition. Anemia and the fetal birth weight have a proportional relationship. The weight of the fetus is greater if the concentration of hemoglobin is higher.
A low birth weight fetus often results from preterm birth, which is another consequence of anemia. Preterm birth greatly influences the health of the fetus. Thus, iron deficiency anemia is a risk factor in early pregnancy. Iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy is also associated with the child’s nervous system and behavior development. It can cause irreversible damage to the child. Therefore, iron is an important micronutrient for the child’s neurological function and development.
In premenopausal women, iron deficiency is the most common cause of hair loss. Iron deficiency can also be triggered by celiac disease and gluten intolerance. This affects the intestine’s ability to absorb food properly, and therefore the body has no nutrients, including iron. The three main causes of iron deficiency are:
-lack of iron in nutrition
-blood loss during birth